Understanding Clubfoot: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Understanding Clubfoot: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis
  • August 4, 2023
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Hello, I’m Dr. Sameer Desai, a physician based in Pune, India, with a special interest in orthopedics. Today, I want to shed light on a condition that affects infants and children worldwide – clubfoot. Clubfoot is a congenital deformity that can cause significant challenges, but with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the outcomes can be very positive.

What is Clubfoot?

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus, is a congenital deformity of the foot. This condition results in the foot being twisted inwards and downwards, making it appear as if it’s rotated. Clubfoot can affect one or both feet, and it is present at birth, although it may not always be immediately obvious.

Causes of Clubfoot

The exact cause of clubfoot is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some children may have a family history of clubfoot, increasing the likelihood of them being born with this condition. Other factors that can contribute to clubfoot include:

  1. Muscle and Tendon Abnormalities: Problems with muscle and tendon development in the lower limbs can lead to clubfoot.
  2. Position in the Womb: Clubfoot may develop during fetal development if the baby’s feet were held in an abnormal position within the womb.
  3. Neurological Conditions: In some cases, clubfoot can be associated with certain neurological conditions, though these are rare.

Signs and Symptoms

Identifying clubfoot in an infant is crucial for early intervention. Signs and symptoms to look out for include:

  1. Inward Turning of the Foot: The most obvious sign is that the affected foot is turned inwards and downwards, making the sole of the foot face inwards.
  2. Stiffness: The calf muscles in the affected leg may be smaller and less developed than in the unaffected leg.
  3. Tight Achilles Tendon: The Achilles tendon at the back of the calf may be tight and feel like a cord.


Clubfoot is typically diagnosed shortly after birth or during a routine neonatal examination. Physicians like me will look for the telltale signs mentioned earlier. In some cases, prenatal ultrasound may also reveal clubfoot before birth. An X-ray or ultrasound may be used to assess the bones and ligaments to confirm the diagnosis.

Early diagnosis is vital because prompt treatment can significantly improve outcomes.


The good news is that clubfoot is highly treatable, especially if caught early. Treatment typically involves non-surgical methods, with surgery being reserved for more severe cases. The primary non-surgical method is the Ponseti method, named after the renowned orthopedic surgeon Dr. Ignacio Ponseti. This method involves a series of gentle manipulations and casting to gradually correct the foot’s position.

Treatment with the Ponseti method usually begins in the first few weeks of life and continues for several months. After the initial correction phase, the child will need to wear a brace (commonly referred to as “boots and bar”) for a few years to maintain the corrected position and prevent relapse.

Surgery is rarely needed but may be considered if the deformity is severe or if non-surgical methods are unsuccessful.


With proper and timely treatment, the majority of children with clubfoot can go on to lead active, pain-free lives. Their feet will function normally, and the appearance of their feet will be greatly improved. Regular follow-up appointments are necessary to monitor progress and ensure that the feet continue to develop properly.

In conclusion, clubfoot is a congenital condition that can be effectively treated when diagnosed and managed early. If you suspect that your child may have clubfoot, don’t hesitate to seek medical attention. Prompt intervention can make a world of difference in your child’s future mobility and quality of life. Always consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and to discuss the best course of treatment for your child’s specific case.

I hope this article has provided you with a better understanding of clubfoot, its causes, symptoms, and the treatment options available. If you have any concerns or questions, please don’t hesitate to reach out to a healthcare provider for further guidance and support.